By Emily Galvin-Almanza, The Appeal
On Dec. 10, 2016, Darrell Caldwell, a rapper known as Drakeo the Ruler, pulled up to a party near the Los Angeles International Airport. According to recently filed court documents, he was with a mix of friends, including supposed-rival Crip and Blood gang members and others as well. Caldwell was socializing outside the party when one of his passengers, Mikell Buchanan, began shooting at Davion Gregory, a rival gang member, from Caldwell’s car. A teenager outside the car, Jaiden Boyd, allegedly also opened fire. Gregory was shot and killed.
Caldwell didn’t pull the trigger. He has always maintained that he is not a gang member and the shooting came as a complete surprise to him. Later, a witness would testify that Caldwell hid under the dashboard thinking he and his friends were under attack. But two years later, prosecutors with the Los Angeles County District Attorney’s Office would charge Caldwell with a murder, launching a yearslong crusade to lock him away for life.
Under ordinary circumstances, simply being at the scene of a crime is not illegal (California’s “felony murder” rule was recently restricted because it punishes people for deaths they didn’t cause). But Caldwell and his friends were subject to policing based on the California gang database, an imprecise and sweeping list of everyone the police suspect of gang affiliation. The database is state-funded but unregulated and maintained by law enforcement. California’s Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention (STEP) Act, which has shaped the state’s gang laws, has given prosecutors broad latitude to charge people with felonies even when they didn’t personally engage in misconduct.
Gang enforcement begins with “documentation”: labeling certain people as gang members in the CalGang database. How people get into the database varies wildly. Tattoos and arrests can certainly cause documentation, but so can neighborhoods, friendships, families, or even schoolbook marginalia. In the case of Caldwell and Tiny Doo, another rapper from San Diego, music lyrics have been used to assign gang designations that the musicians themselves contest. Once that person is in the database, police have reason to approach them and detain them at will. Police use these tactics almost exclusively to document people of color—only about 8 percent of documented individuals are white, according to a 2015 audit of the CalGang database.
The database gives police increased authority to approach and harass people for virtually no reason. And STEP allows courts to criminalize normal behavior, using civil injunctions to make it a crime for children to wear designated colors, for people to visit certain locations or be out after hours, and even for family members to see one another. I learned this during my first summer of law school, working for the Los Angeles County Public Defender in the Eastlake Juvenile Court, where I tried to help mothers navigate court orders that said two children couldn’t be in the same house, or orders to throw out all blue or red or purple or even gray clothing. Once these children were charged, STEP stripped away the due process protections intended to protect accused people from unfair verdicts. Then it lengthened sentences by years, if not decades.
Documentation starts young. Police track kids as young as 10, said Sajid Khan, a deputy public defender and host of the “Aider and Abettor” podcast. But by the time a child is finally arrested and has access to a lawyer, there may be years of police contact built up—years of encounters, relationships, grudges, and admissions. José Valle, a community organizer with Silicon Valley De-Bug, described to me how “at-risk” and “gang-impacted” are just gradations of what Black and Latinx communities look like to law enforcement. “The system is punishing or criminalizing you merely because of your culture and where you grew up and had to create a sort of form of survival.”
I was pulled out of Eastlake Juvenile halfway through the summer to assist with a homicide case downtown. We were defending Charlie, who was almost exactly my age and grew up in a heavily documented neighborhood near where Caldwell was raised. He had a new baby at home and a deeply loving, close-knit family. Like Caldwell, he was subjected to obsessive gang policing. Unlike Caldwell, prosecutors claimed he was the triggerman in a shooting at a party where two people were killed and others injured.
It didn’t matter that all survivors of the shooting identified another man as the shooter, that man had already been convicted of the shooting, and witnesses testified that Charlie had been elsewhere at the time. Police insisted Charlie was a gang member, and he must have been a second shooter, somehow unseen and unmarked by gun residue.
The police testifying in Charlie’s case were men he had known for years. Charlie explained how they had come to hate him when he had publicly mocked one officer for thinking he had a gun on him when he didn’t. Charlie had the wrong circle of friends, but never seemed to be caught up in anything serious (his most serious prior conviction was for joyriding) and in the intimate world of gang enforcement, his local cops were convinced Charlie was hiding something.
Ten years later, the police were treating Caldwell the same way they had treated Charlie. Police spent two years trying to find a way to link Caldwell to the 2016 murder. They watched hundreds of hours of music videos, interpreting lyrics. They spent New Year’s Eve lying on a dirt mound, spying on Caldwell’s home. Rather than moving forward with prosecuting the actual shooters, Los Angeles County District Attorney Jackie Lacey’s office waited to bring the case to trial for years so that officers could build a case against Caldwell.
When Caldwell’s case finally went to trial, the jury rejected the prosecutor’s assertion that he was guilty of murder, attempted murder, and conspiracy to commit murder. In fact, out of 11 counts, the jury convicted him only of gun possession. But crucially, the jury split on the charge of promoting a gang.
On the day of his sentencing, having already spent almost two years in custody, Lacey’s deputy district attorneys announced that Caldwell would not be sentenced or released. They wanted to try him again—accusing him, again, of the gang charge. A charge so broad, prosecutors claim they don’t need to prove Caldwell had intent or even an agreement to kill anyone, merely that the gang’s crime should be attributed to him by association.
Still incarcerated, and having spent eight months in solitary confinement, Caldwell asked the court to dismiss the remaining charges, but last week his motion was denied. His lawyer, John Hamasaki, said, “We have full confidence in a jury to get it right. As it has once already.” Caldwell is expected to go to trial next month.
Generally, the law doesn’t allow prosecutors to allege guilt by association. Prosecutors aren’t allowed to convince a jury that the defendant is a bad person simply because they know bad people, let alone tell juries about all the bad stuff those other people did when the accused wasn’t even around.
But in gang cases, prosecutors often seek to prove the defendant’s guilt using evidence of other crimes committed by other documented members of an alleged gang whom the defendant may not even know.
“It becomes this trial of the gang, as opposed to a trial of the individual,” said Khan. “The individual gets lost in the shuffle. The individual accused of the crime is a tangential part of the trial process, because what gets highlighted are the ugly or serious and violent crimes of other gang members rather than the actual conduct of the accused in this current case.”
When this happens, the jury is inundated with evidence of other crimes committed by other people. Khan explained that in his experience, juries tend to lose sight of what the trial is actually about—whether an accused person did a particular thing. “What actual evidence there is against the individual offender almost becomes somewhat irrelevant,” he said. “Gang laws permit—not even a backdoor, just a front door to tremendously prejudicial information to be entered into evidence and become kind of the star of the show against the individual.” Juries are tempted to decide that the details don’t matter, because the accused person is clearly a bad person who knows bad people who do other bad things. They get tempted to vote for conviction, regardless of whether anyone has proved guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.
These convictions have dire consequences. Gang involvement can result in life in prison even when the accused had no direct involvement in the incident. Even simply painting graffiti can become a felony punished by years in prison if a person is accused of tagging for a gang. As Valle explained, “If you get caught for a strong-arm robbery and you’re white, you’re going to get whatever’s coming to you for that specific charge. If you’re la raza or if you’re Black or Samoan, if you get caught with the same strong-arm robbery, more than likely you’re going to get a gang enhancement, and with the gang enhancement, you’re going to do a whole lot more time than the average person would for that charge.”
Caldwell’s case has caught public attention, but this practice of sweeping young men onto the gang database and then systematically targeting them for arrest and prosecution is fundamentally common throughout California. As Valle says, “you don’t have to be a famous entertainer for these types of things to happen.”
This is the system that cost my client, Charlie, everything.
It would eventually come to light that police had pressured the only supposed eyewitness to lie about Charlie’s involvement. The young man, a teenage runaway, spent two days on the witness stand, crying and apologizing for his role in the setup. He explained that police had threatened him with prison time for drug possession if he didn’t identify Charlie as the shooter. Other witnesses remembered seeing Charlie elsewhere at the time of the shooting, dancing with a girl inside the party.
With little evidence of actual guilt, jurors were instead subjected to a slew of gang evidence. Prosecutors presented crime after crime committed by other people whom Charlie supposedly knew. Suddenly, it didn’t matter that witness after witness remembered Charlie being elsewhere when the shooting happened. Charlie was convicted of murder and sentenced to life without parole.
Caldwell and Charlie were arrested over a decade apart. Though other vestiges of California’s tough-on-crime era have begun to be reformed over that time, STEP has continued to move California further from justice. DA Lacey is perhaps most responsible for pressing forward with the worst aspects of California law: Her record is one in which only men of color are sentenced to death, in which she has refused to answer calls to step away from using corrupt officers as witnesses, and which still, 20 years after STEP was conceived, still leaves young men of color to face harassment, obsessive policing, and criminalized association. While the rest of the state focuses on vital reforms, young men like Caldwell and Charlie are left in the dark, fighting against a special, vastly more penal legal scheme reserved for Black and Latinx people.
By creating a scheme that corrals communities of color and subjects them to different rules of engagement, the law has formalized a pipeline of people from heavily policed communities into the prison system. The STEP Act is a vestige of the tough-on-crime 1980s, now vastly out of date with California’s push toward safety- and justice-oriented reforms. Lacey’s persistence in using these outdated laws against Caldwell has garnered national scrutiny, but the damage to thousands of other people is often overlooked. Groups like Pillars of the Community, Silicon Valley De-Bug, A New Way of Life, the Los Angeles Community Action Network, the ACLU, and others have spent years trying to raise awareness and find restorative solutions to gang conflict, but the widespread nature of this race-based enforcement is still difficult for many outside the legal world to fathom.
By making arrest more likely and conviction more certain, prosecutors who embrace these schemes are implicitly choosing winning over justice. And every time they sidestep the burden of proof by using gang laws and use guilt by association instead of guilt beyond a reasonable doubt, they are taking us further from the rule of law.
This tilted playing field will now determine whether Caldwell goes free, or whether he spends most of his life in a cell.
Charlie spent nearly a decade in California’s worst prison appealing for a fair trial. When he finally received it, more careful legal rulings required the prosecutor to focus on the actual accusation at hand, without being able to rely on other people’s gang crimes. Given a chance to be tried on his own actions, Charlie was found not guilty on all charges.
In the end, Charlie won, but not before he lost his youth and his chance to be a part of his daughter’s childhood. Charlie’s mother never missed a court date during the time he spent fighting for his life, but she died of heart failure before she got to see him come home.
Caldwell and Charlie are just two of the people who have grown up among generations of young men and women of color in California with the knowledge that the rule of law is designed not for their protection, but to be used against them.
This commentary was originally published on The Appeal, a nonprofit criminal justice news site.
Emily Galvin-Almanza is Senior Legal Counsel for The Justice Collaborative. The Appeal is an editorially independent project of The Justice Collaborative, which is a fiscally sponsored project of Tides Advocacy.
Image: CalGang Mission Statement from the California Department of Justice.
Let me get this straight, Ms. Galvin Almanza…Mr. Caldwell was at a party with a gun (a MINOR detail you conveniently left out in your opening paragraph) and, even though HE was only a make-believe gang member, a REAL gang member, who was in his car, shot and killed Mr. Gregory? But Mr. Caldwell had nothing to do with it? I’m not sure if you’ve heard the aphorism that begins, “If it looks like a duck….” Here are some pictures of a duck:
I know that, as a public defender, you’d like juries to consider crimes in a vacuum, but context matters. Your mention of graffiti is a good example. A kid spray painting his name on a wall is very different from a gang member spraying “187 LAPD” or crossing out his rival gang’s name. I think it’s GREAT that juries are made aware of a suspect’s background and SHOULD consider WHO they are and the future threat they represent to society.
I’m not sure if you’re just suffering from white guilt (a common disease among liberals) or if you feel that SOMEONE needs to help these poor black and “Latinx” (hilarious) youth who’ve been FORCED into the gang life, but I hope you never have to deal, face to face, outside a courtroom, with the people you let loose on society.
Is society better or worse without Mr. Caldwell? I’d say….better.
LASD Apostle- I heard that saying, If it looks like a duck, and so on. Also heard, If it squeals like a pig, it must be a pig. What you really mean is, If its a black duck, it must be a gang member. Let me get this straight, you get to say who is a gang member, then you get to harass them because they are “gang members?” Something is wrong with that picture. The gang numbers have always be exaggerated by law enforcement. They want to paint an apocalyptic picture and give the impression that we need more than we do. And, when they encounter a real gang member, they approach like cowboys (too aggressive), are not well trained and get “smoked,” as happened in Whittier. The life of the police officer, contrary to the image you wish to portray, is not like the movie Colors, where in the span of two hours you take out numerous bad guys and they take out themselves. Please, stop it already.
And, that last question of yours is indicative of the problem with law enforcement. It is not up to you to put someone away or make shit up or label them this or that because you think society is better off. Its not up to you to look for an excuse to stop someone because they a re black or brown because you think society will better off. I propose that society is better off, and the city and county budgets would be healthier, if got rid of portly and obese police officers that get winded getting off the patrol car or motorcycle, but we do make policy that way.
Finally, its funny how the standard you want to apply to these criminal trials about what juries can consider is the same thing you and your unions have fought for years. There is a list of lying, crooked cops and we have yet to be able to get in their sordid background and history. Have you heard the saying, What is good for the goose, should be good for the pig.
BTW, did you see the LA Times today. They had an article about how racist police seem to stop black and Latinos more than Whites, yet Whites seem to have more contraband. But, black and brown people look scarier, right LASD Apostle.
Mr.Darrell Caldwell could have been the victim in the exchange of gunfire and ended up dead.
I would say pick better friends. Hang out with gang members being a bad ass rapper, well, the likelihood is you will be involved in trouble, especially with gun carrying gangsters.
Of course it is CalGangs fault.
CF: You are off your meds again. Still watching those old “Mod Squad” reruns. Wishing you were back in the seventies. Unlike you I have watched young black and brown men die. Not by the POLICE, but those other young black and brown young men that found themselves in Cal-gangs. You talk the talk, but have you ever walked the walk?
There is no disputing that gangs and gang members in California have been responsible for innumerable acts of ruthless and senseless violence – resulting in disability and death for so many promising minority youth and permanently scarring their families and communities with tragedy.
However, we should not allow those facts to serve as validation for our embrace of this grotesque mutation of the criminal justice process which has evolved around the labels of “gang” and “gang member”.
This mutation is rooted in the pervasive dogma which proclaims that any gang member who hasn’t yet committed a serious and violent crime will eventually and inevitably commit a serious and violent crime.
The infection has spread throughout the general population and has become epidemic to the law enforcement and criminal justice apparatus within California. From individual gang unit officer all the way up to the SCOTSOC.
Only after studying some California trial proceedings and California appeals court decisions did i become aware of the unbelievable judicial absurdity which can occur when a defendant is given the label of “gang member “.
Jurors and judges are invited to drink from the chalice of the “gang member” label — an alt-reality elixir in which logic, the laws of physics, legal principle, common-sense, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights are prudish inhibitions that are softened, loosened-up and finally slide away.
Contributing to the desperate prospects of a criminal defendant labeled as “gang member” is a general inadequacy of understanding the true nature of the system aligned against them and a serious deficit of the resources required to counter the tactics of the prosecution.
These defendants allow their case to proceed to trial much too quickly.
Of course, they cannot raise bail and they remain in custody since arrest – but there should be no haste to face the jury and receive their conviction. More time won’t strengthen the prosecution’s case, but it may allow the defense to prepare a more effective plan for surviving the fight of their life.
Even a defendant with truth on their side is a very bad bet.
The D.A. knows how to pick the best candidates to try to convict. Some times it can be easier to convict a person who did not commit the crime then to convict the person who actually did the crime. Once the defendant is presented as a “gang member” the decks are stacked ten high against their proof of innocence.
The court and everyone inside is escorted Through the Looking Glass and Down the Rabbit Hole by the prosecutor, with a tolerant nod from the judge.
Open your eyes and look around at a veritable Prosecutorial Wonderland!
Here, the D.A. may bring to the stand a police officer who will present his credentials as a certified expert on gangs, gang members and gang life.
He will then provide his expert testimony in rating the reliability and accuracy of any witnesses labeled as “gang member” called to provide testimony on behalf of the defense.
This means a defendant may take the witness stand to testify to his alibi and to proclaim his own innocence.
The police officer may then be allowed to tell the jury what was truth and what was untruth in that testimony. Because the defendant is a “gang member” and the officer is a “gang expert”.
So certainly there are many who were laid out on the tracks by Jackie Lacy, and Steve Cooley before her.
“gang members” run over by the L.A.D.A./L.A. Superior Court/California 2nd District Court of Appeals mighty “wrongful conviction” railroad who languish in prison, forgotten and ignored by our entire society, except for one or two family members or old friends.
We know this is true because we know their cases and we know their names.
Matthew Turner is one.
cf still calling LE personnel pigs is a loud and clear message from WLA that the name calling is perfectly in line with the approved ideology.
LASD Apostle: don’t sell yourself short – you have the chops to run the department. LASD Apostle for Sheriff.
cf-“Let me get this straight…”
Funniest thing you’ve ever said.
cf- I did not see that article in the LA Times. But then again, nobody reads the LA Times anymore. That’s why they are downsizing and getting close to shutting down. They write bad stories against Sheriff Villanueva because he doesnt pay them upwards of $200,000 to write good stories about him…like McDonnell used to.
@cf…Once again, you try to come across as an intellect. However, your babbling, incoherent sentences, coupled with your run on sentences and dangling modifiers, leaves the reader(s) confused. Further, the word “white” does not need to be capitalized. You remember, this was discussed in the 1st grade?
Please ensure that you provide vetted, empirical data regarding your outlandish , unsubstantiated, discriminatory statements (i.e., yet Whites seem to have more contraband).
Hey Emily-Galvan Almanza I have an idea. Instead of basing your Op-Ed on emotionally, biased, racist viewpoint, why don’t you sign up with either LAPD or LASD and go on a ride along. This way you can get first hand knowledge of these so called gang members who are being mistreated and singled out.
Dunce of Reality, please stop the whining. Its unbecoming an officer. You think that because you do not use the N-word in your posts, they or you are not racist. I suspect many would find LASD Apostate’s post racist. He wants you to look at a picture of a black man so that you can see he is a gang member? Really? He finds ““Latinx” (hilarious).” Why is it funny? Some may find that racist. Reminds me of the one-tooth yokels in the south who claim they are not racist because they only want to “make America great again.” I know, Celeste knows, and you know, this site is full of racists who claim to be heroes. Don’t admit your racism; I do not care. But, please stop the whining and squealing.
Pat, the ride along is when you are on your best behavior. Its when you think no one is watching that you stop the kid on the bike with saggy pants, or the Mexican in the car where the license plate light is not working. Do you folks read? If so, maybe you check out the LA Times article a few days ago on how a black or brown man is several times more likely to get stopped than a white man, despite the higher likelihood of finding contraband on the white man. Save it for Cops.
The recent shooting of an unarmed resident in Fort Worth is certainly disturbing. Like many officers I could have been involved in dozens of shootings during my career where I perceived a threat. Like most officers I waited until I verified the threat or the situation necessitated the use of deadly force. Bottom line you can’t shoot every time you feel threatened. Too many of these shootings nationwide. Perhaps training issues or hiring standards.
Conduct a comprehensive hour by hour inventory of the prior 72 hours in the police officer’s life leading up to the fatal erroneous shooting.
A deficit of necessary sleep/rest can result in diminished cognitive functioning and degraded reflex control.
Insufficient training, insecure rookie officer, ambiguous or contradictory directions from supervising officer and mental exhaustion from insufficient sleep/rest – add each of these elements together to create an extremely elevated risk of fatal error by police officer in the field.
Police unions, political establishment and mainstream media will go complete blackout on any attempt to investigate prior 72 hours leading up to fatal erroneous shooting.
We can demand work shift/sleep shift logs from truck drivers, airline pilots, emergency medical personnel – but not police officers.
The last great taboo topic in U.S.A. is inadequate rest/sleep/ exhaustion as contributing factor to fatal errors by police officer in the field.
I don’t know the answer. I remember a recent shooting involving LAPD. A female homeless woman was being held at knife point by a male suspect. One officer on the left had a possible shot available. None of the three officers on the right had a clear shot. Yet the officers on the right fired killing the victim and suspect. That goes against training and common sense. That is like a surgeon killing the patient to get the cancer. Mind blogging.
Skippy, I figured the LA Times would have been an easy read for the uniformed heroes. Unfortunately, I do not think the story was published in Brietbart or the Klan Weekly. Although they should publish it since they take LAPD money for job postings. Too bad you don’t read, you would have found out about the fine officers in the Fort Worth PD. Is it Black season in Texas or just a coincidence?
Fat Rolman, madame dong can tell you I am no intellect. In fact, I am quite the idiot. I am open about my disability. That is why I like this site. It is one of the few places I can actually bring up the average IQ. And, my apologies if I left anything dangling and confused you and the other literati on this site. And, “vetted?” Really? Your ilk hasn’t met any data you like, with the exception of the study by Fox that found that 90% of officers are heroes and 10% are saints. At least you are smart enough to get the cushy job with nice pay and sweet pension.
Bandwagon, you would be surprised. Coming down from Simi Valley or up from Orange county to do your drive along and get some overtime does not make you an expert. You probably think you are black from being around so many black people.
Well, at least you gentlemen do not squeal and have thin skin like Dope of Reality.
This used to be a half decent site where people that disagreed could have a civil discussion. Not anymore.
CF writes ad infinitum, despite ignored facts to the contrary, that all cops are “porcine” overpaid, lazy, fat, lying, racist security guards. There is no middle ground nor room for civil discussion. This site has become juvenile and boringly predictable.
For reasons known only to her, the proprietor if this site allows the ongoing demeaning back and forth as opposed to enforcing her own rules.
Ms. Galvan Almanza,
Somewhere along the way you bought into a false narrative without doing your due diligence. I can’t stand the phrase “fake news,” but your article is full of factually inaccurate material. Do really know anything about the case against Darrell Caldwell, aka, Drakeo the Ruler? Do you know who was murdered? Did you talk to the victim’s father or mother? Do you care about them? Did you talk to the detectives or prosecutors? Did you even attempt? Did you attend the trial, read the transcripts or review any of the many publicly available court documents? The answers are surely no to each question.
If you were a real reporter who was actually interested in reporting the truth, you would know the following: Davion Gregory, a young black many was shot several times as he ran away from his assailants. Gregory did not possess or use a gun and the shooting was wholly unprovoked. He was a pure victim and his family remains devastated. Two other young black men were also shot and injured in this attack. Prior to the murder Darrell Caldwell specifically told members of his gang to become shooters and step up their game. Caldwell possessed many guns and was in control of both murder weapons used to shoot Gregory shortly before the murder. Caldwell then drove the killer, an active gang solider, to the scene and waited in his car with the shooter until the victims were in a vulnerable position. The shooter, while sitting in Caldwell’s car, then shot and killed Gregory. Immediately thereafter, Caldwell drove the shooter and away from the scene. Does this sound like the police or prosecution are inappropriately targeting Caldwell? Of course not, but that does not fit your pre-fabricated narrative.
Some of your general criticisms have some merit, but you lose so much credibility when you are wrong about so much of the facts that actually matter. If you think any of this is embellished or exaggerated, come to the re-trial and see for yourself.
Listening to your standard cop haters like John and Cf you’d think the public would want to get rid of cops and replace them with something (or anything) else. But the opposite is true, the public demands cops and will not tolerate a politician who doesn’t promise police protection. Knowing policing is necessary, and knowing they don’t want to have to do it themselves, the public is more than willing to pay good money to have someone else do the job.
People look at the Johns of the world, see through the fake tough guy rhetoric and realize there is no value there. He’s just another loud mouth pussy, reasonable people aren’t going to give up their protection for that.
@cf….. you are such an idiot, that is consumed with vitriol and hate. This is obvious by the ignorant “posts / replies” you list on this blog.
Once again, you make ignorant, baseless statements, without providing any verifiable, vetted, empirical data (i.e., “a black or brown man is several times more likely to get stopped than a white man, despite the higher likelihood of finding contraband on the white man.”
The suggestion to the writer of this Op-Ed piece, was so that she (Almanza) can see first hand, how her Op-Ed piece is biased and unfounded.
Based on your statement, of this site being full of racists, you are absolutely correct. You are one of those racists. For example you stated “one tooth yokels.” I presume you are still watching episodes of Looney Tunes.
@cf….thank you for admitting your illiteracy. However, my comment was, in essence, to make you aware of your inability to construct a meaningful, articulable, coherent statement(s), that the readers of this blog could understand.
Since you seem to have a knack for slandering and bismerching others point of view, I figured I would make you aware of your deficiencies.
Uncle Aldo is right those poor gangsters,,,,,,,, can’t wait to leave all these gangsters to you here in California enjoy them . Your an idiot uncle also
cf- Its just a coincidence.
Did I answer that question for you?